GPS code phase variations (CPV) for GNSS receiver antennas and their effect on geodetic parameters and ambiguity resolution

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)579-596
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of geodesy
Volume91
Issue number6
Early online date24 Dec 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017

Abstract

Precise navigation and geodetic coordinate determination rely on accurate GNSS signal reception. Thus, the receiver antenna properties play a crucial role in the GNSS error budget. For carrier phase observations, a spherical radiation pattern represents an ideal receiver antenna behaviour. Deviations are known as phase centre corrections. Due to synergy of carrier and code phase, similar effects on the code exist named code phase variations (CPV). They are mainly attributed to electromagnetic interactions of several active and passive elements of the receiver antenna. Consequently, a calibration and estimation strategy is necessary to determine the shape and magnitudes of the CPV. Such a concept was proposed, implemented and tested at the Institut für Erdmessung. The applied methodology and the obtained results are reported and discussed in this paper. We show that the azimuthal and elevation-dependent CPV can reach maximum magnitudes of 0.2–0.3 m for geodetic antennas and up to maximum values of 1.8 m for small navigation antennas. The obtained values are validated by dedicated tests in the observation and coordinate domain. As a result, CPV are identified to be antenna- related properties that are independent from location and time of calibration. Even for geodetic antennas when forming linear combinations the CPV effect can be amplified to values of 0.4–0.6 m. Thus, a significant fractional of the Melbourne–Wübbena linear combination. A case study highlights that incorrect ambiguity resolution can occur due to neglecting CPV corrections. The impact on the coordinates which may reach up to the dm level is illustrated.

Keywords

    Ambiguity resolution, Carrier phase centre correction, Code phase variation, GNSS receiver antenna calibration, GPS/GNSS antennas, Group delay variation, Melbourne–Wübbena linear combination

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GPS code phase variations (CPV) for GNSS receiver antennas and their effect on geodetic parameters and ambiguity resolution. / Kersten, Tobias; Schön, Steffen.
In: Journal of geodesy, Vol. 91, No. 6, 06.2017, p. 579-596.

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title = "GPS code phase variations (CPV) for GNSS receiver antennas and their effect on geodetic parameters and ambiguity resolution",
abstract = "Precise navigation and geodetic coordinate determination rely on accurate GNSS signal reception. Thus, the receiver antenna properties play a crucial role in the GNSS error budget. For carrier phase observations, a spherical radiation pattern represents an ideal receiver antenna behaviour. Deviations are known as phase centre corrections. Due to synergy of carrier and code phase, similar effects on the code exist named code phase variations (CPV). They are mainly attributed to electromagnetic interactions of several active and passive elements of the receiver antenna. Consequently, a calibration and estimation strategy is necessary to determine the shape and magnitudes of the CPV. Such a concept was proposed, implemented and tested at the Institut f{\"u}r Erdmessung. The applied methodology and the obtained results are reported and discussed in this paper. We show that the azimuthal and elevation-dependent CPV can reach maximum magnitudes of 0.2–0.3 m for geodetic antennas and up to maximum values of 1.8 m for small navigation antennas. The obtained values are validated by dedicated tests in the observation and coordinate domain. As a result, CPV are identified to be antenna- related properties that are independent from location and time of calibration. Even for geodetic antennas when forming linear combinations the CPV effect can be amplified to values of 0.4–0.6 m. Thus, a significant fractional of the Melbourne–W{\"u}bbena linear combination. A case study highlights that incorrect ambiguity resolution can occur due to neglecting CPV corrections. The impact on the coordinates which may reach up to the dm level is illustrated.",
keywords = "Ambiguity resolution, Carrier phase centre correction, Code phase variation, GNSS receiver antenna calibration, GPS/GNSS antennas, Group delay variation, Melbourne–W{\"u}bbena linear combination",
author = "Tobias Kersten and Steffen Sch{\"o}n",
note = "Funding Information: The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding of this research by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology with the label 50 NA 0903 and 50 NA 1216. In addition, both anonymous reviewers are thanked for their valuable and useful comments on the manuscript.",
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AU - Kersten, Tobias

AU - Schön, Steffen

N1 - Funding Information: The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding of this research by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology with the label 50 NA 0903 and 50 NA 1216. In addition, both anonymous reviewers are thanked for their valuable and useful comments on the manuscript.

PY - 2017/6

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N2 - Precise navigation and geodetic coordinate determination rely on accurate GNSS signal reception. Thus, the receiver antenna properties play a crucial role in the GNSS error budget. For carrier phase observations, a spherical radiation pattern represents an ideal receiver antenna behaviour. Deviations are known as phase centre corrections. Due to synergy of carrier and code phase, similar effects on the code exist named code phase variations (CPV). They are mainly attributed to electromagnetic interactions of several active and passive elements of the receiver antenna. Consequently, a calibration and estimation strategy is necessary to determine the shape and magnitudes of the CPV. Such a concept was proposed, implemented and tested at the Institut für Erdmessung. The applied methodology and the obtained results are reported and discussed in this paper. We show that the azimuthal and elevation-dependent CPV can reach maximum magnitudes of 0.2–0.3 m for geodetic antennas and up to maximum values of 1.8 m for small navigation antennas. The obtained values are validated by dedicated tests in the observation and coordinate domain. As a result, CPV are identified to be antenna- related properties that are independent from location and time of calibration. Even for geodetic antennas when forming linear combinations the CPV effect can be amplified to values of 0.4–0.6 m. Thus, a significant fractional of the Melbourne–Wübbena linear combination. A case study highlights that incorrect ambiguity resolution can occur due to neglecting CPV corrections. The impact on the coordinates which may reach up to the dm level is illustrated.

AB - Precise navigation and geodetic coordinate determination rely on accurate GNSS signal reception. Thus, the receiver antenna properties play a crucial role in the GNSS error budget. For carrier phase observations, a spherical radiation pattern represents an ideal receiver antenna behaviour. Deviations are known as phase centre corrections. Due to synergy of carrier and code phase, similar effects on the code exist named code phase variations (CPV). They are mainly attributed to electromagnetic interactions of several active and passive elements of the receiver antenna. Consequently, a calibration and estimation strategy is necessary to determine the shape and magnitudes of the CPV. Such a concept was proposed, implemented and tested at the Institut für Erdmessung. The applied methodology and the obtained results are reported and discussed in this paper. We show that the azimuthal and elevation-dependent CPV can reach maximum magnitudes of 0.2–0.3 m for geodetic antennas and up to maximum values of 1.8 m for small navigation antennas. The obtained values are validated by dedicated tests in the observation and coordinate domain. As a result, CPV are identified to be antenna- related properties that are independent from location and time of calibration. Even for geodetic antennas when forming linear combinations the CPV effect can be amplified to values of 0.4–0.6 m. Thus, a significant fractional of the Melbourne–Wübbena linear combination. A case study highlights that incorrect ambiguity resolution can occur due to neglecting CPV corrections. The impact on the coordinates which may reach up to the dm level is illustrated.

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KW - GPS/GNSS antennas

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