## Details

Originalsprache | Englisch |
---|---|

Seiten (von - bis) | 23-32 |

Seitenumfang | 10 |

Fachzeitschrift | ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing |

Jahrgang | 61 |

Ausgabenummer | 1 |

Frühes Online-Datum | 11 Sept. 2006 |

Publikationsstatus | Veröffentlicht - Okt. 2006 |

## Abstract

The most commonly used topographic vector data, the reference data of national geographic information systems (GIS) are currently two-dimensional. The topography is modelled by different objects which are represented by single points, lines and areas with additional attributes containing information, for instance on the function and size of the object. In contrast, a digital terrain model (DTM) in most cases is a 2.5D representation of the earth's surface. The integration of the two data sets leads to an augmentation of the dimension of the topographic objects. However, due to inconsistencies between the data the integration process may lead to semantically incorrect results. This paper presents a new approach for the integration of a DTM and 2D GIS vector data including the re-establishment of the semantic correctness of the integrated data set. The algorithm consists of two steps. In the first step the DTM and the topographic objects are integrated without considering the semantics of the objects. This geometric integration is based on a DTM TIN (triangular irregular network) computed using a constrained Delaunay triangulation. In the second step those objects which contain implicit height information are further utilized: object representations are formulated and the semantics of the objects are considered within an optimization process using equality and inequality constraints. The algorithm is based on an inequality constrained least squares adjustment formulated as the linear complementary problem (LCP). The algorithm results in an integrated semantically correct 2.5D GIS data set. Results are presented using simulated and real data. Lakes represented by horizontal planes with increasing terrain outside the lake and roads which are composed of several tilted planes were investigated. The algorithm shows satisfying results: the constraints are fulfilled and the visualization of the integrated data set corresponds to the human view of the topography.

## ASJC Scopus Sachgebiete

- Physik und Astronomie (insg.)
**Atom- und Molekularphysik sowie Optik**- Ingenieurwesen (insg.)
**Ingenieurwesen (sonstige)**- Informatik (insg.)
**Angewandte Informatik**- Erdkunde und Planetologie (insg.)
**Computer in den Geowissenschaften**

## Zitieren

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**Semantically correct 2.5D GIS data: The integration of a DTM and topographic vector data.**/ Koch, Andreas; Heipke, Christian.

in: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Jahrgang 61, Nr. 1, 10.2006, S. 23-32.

Publikation: Beitrag in Fachzeitschrift › Artikel › Forschung › Peer-Review

*ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing*, Jg. 61, Nr. 1, S. 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2006.07.005

*ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing*,

*61*(1), 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2006.07.005

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Semantically correct 2.5D GIS data

T2 - The integration of a DTM and topographic vector data

AU - Koch, Andreas

AU - Heipke, Christian

N1 - Funding Information: This research was generously supported by the State Surveying Authority of Lower Saxony Landesvermessung und Geobasisinformation Niedersachsen (LGN). We also express our gratitude to LGN for providing the data.

PY - 2006/10

Y1 - 2006/10

N2 - The most commonly used topographic vector data, the reference data of national geographic information systems (GIS) are currently two-dimensional. The topography is modelled by different objects which are represented by single points, lines and areas with additional attributes containing information, for instance on the function and size of the object. In contrast, a digital terrain model (DTM) in most cases is a 2.5D representation of the earth's surface. The integration of the two data sets leads to an augmentation of the dimension of the topographic objects. However, due to inconsistencies between the data the integration process may lead to semantically incorrect results. This paper presents a new approach for the integration of a DTM and 2D GIS vector data including the re-establishment of the semantic correctness of the integrated data set. The algorithm consists of two steps. In the first step the DTM and the topographic objects are integrated without considering the semantics of the objects. This geometric integration is based on a DTM TIN (triangular irregular network) computed using a constrained Delaunay triangulation. In the second step those objects which contain implicit height information are further utilized: object representations are formulated and the semantics of the objects are considered within an optimization process using equality and inequality constraints. The algorithm is based on an inequality constrained least squares adjustment formulated as the linear complementary problem (LCP). The algorithm results in an integrated semantically correct 2.5D GIS data set. Results are presented using simulated and real data. Lakes represented by horizontal planes with increasing terrain outside the lake and roads which are composed of several tilted planes were investigated. The algorithm shows satisfying results: the constraints are fulfilled and the visualization of the integrated data set corresponds to the human view of the topography.

AB - The most commonly used topographic vector data, the reference data of national geographic information systems (GIS) are currently two-dimensional. The topography is modelled by different objects which are represented by single points, lines and areas with additional attributes containing information, for instance on the function and size of the object. In contrast, a digital terrain model (DTM) in most cases is a 2.5D representation of the earth's surface. The integration of the two data sets leads to an augmentation of the dimension of the topographic objects. However, due to inconsistencies between the data the integration process may lead to semantically incorrect results. This paper presents a new approach for the integration of a DTM and 2D GIS vector data including the re-establishment of the semantic correctness of the integrated data set. The algorithm consists of two steps. In the first step the DTM and the topographic objects are integrated without considering the semantics of the objects. This geometric integration is based on a DTM TIN (triangular irregular network) computed using a constrained Delaunay triangulation. In the second step those objects which contain implicit height information are further utilized: object representations are formulated and the semantics of the objects are considered within an optimization process using equality and inequality constraints. The algorithm is based on an inequality constrained least squares adjustment formulated as the linear complementary problem (LCP). The algorithm results in an integrated semantically correct 2.5D GIS data set. Results are presented using simulated and real data. Lakes represented by horizontal planes with increasing terrain outside the lake and roads which are composed of several tilted planes were investigated. The algorithm shows satisfying results: the constraints are fulfilled and the visualization of the integrated data set corresponds to the human view of the topography.

KW - Adjustment

KW - DTM

KW - GIS

KW - Integration

KW - Modelling

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33748946756&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2006.07.005

DO - 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2006.07.005

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:33748946756

VL - 61

SP - 23

EP - 32

JO - ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

JF - ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

SN - 0924-2716

IS - 1

ER -